ELEMENTS

 

 

ELEMENTS : HYDROGEN

GROUP :       IA

NUMBER SYMBOL : H

OTHER NAMES : PROTIUM

OCCURENCE
AND
DISTRIBUTION : It is Primordial, Hydrogen occurs throughout the universe in two forms. First, it occurs in stars. Stars use hydrogen as a fuel with which to produce energy. Hydrogen occurs on the Earth primarily in the form of water. Every molecule of water (H 2 O) contains two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. Hydrogen is also found in many rocks and minerals. Its abundance is estimated to be about 1,500 parts per million. That makes hydrogen the tenth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust.

IDENTIFICATION TEST :A splint is lit and held near the opening of the tube, then the stopper is removed to expose the splint to the gas. If the gas is flammable, the mixture ignites. Hydrogen extinguishes with a pop sound.

PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND USES : Hydrogen is used in large quantities as a raw material in the chemical synthesis of ammonia, methanol, hydrogen peroxide, polymers, and solvents, The pharmaceutical industry uses hydrogen to manufacture vitamins and other pharmaceutical products.

LITHIUM :
GROUP :                       IA
NUMBER SYMBOL : Li
Other Names:              None
OCCURENCE
AND
DISTRIBUTION: Lithium does not occur as the metal in nature, but is found combined in small amounts in nearly all igneous rocks and in the waters of many mineral springs. Spodumene, petalite, lepidolite, and amblygonite are the more important minerals containing lithium. Lithium is a naturally occurring alkali metal, which living organisms ingest from dietary sources and which is also present in trace amounts in the human body.

IDENTIFICATION TEST: Flame test which involves introducing a sample of the element or compound to a hot, non-luminous flame, and observing the color of the flame. Lithium in flame test shows colour of crimson red; invisible through green glass

PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND USES : Lithium is used to treat and prevent episodes of mania (frenzied, abnormally excited mood) in people with bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disorder; a disease that causes episodes of depression, episodes of mania, and other abnormal moods). Lithium is in a class of medications called antimanic agents.

SODIUM

SYMBOL :Na

OTHER NAMES: Natrium

OCCURRENCE AND DISTRIBUTION: it is Primordial. Sodium occurs naturally in most foods. The most common form of sodium is sodium chloride, which is table salt. Milk, beets, and celery also naturally contain sodium, as does drinking water, although the amount varies depending on the source. Sodium is also added to various food products.
IDENTIFICATION TEST: Flame tests are used. Sodium imparts a brilliant, long lasting yellow flame.

PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND USES: Sodium reacts with chlorine to form a sodium chloride.  Sodium chloride is widely used in a variety of pharmaceutical products to produce isotonic solutions.Sodium chloride tablets are also available to replace salt lost through excess sweating to help prevent muscle cramps.

POTASSIUM :
GROUP :                       IA
NUMBER SYMBOL : K
Other Names:              Kalium
OCCURENCE
AND
DISTRIBUTION : It is Primordial. Many fresh fruits and vegetables are rich in potassium: Bananas, oranges, cantaloupe, honeydew, apricots, grapefruit. Some dried fruits, such as prunes, raisins, and dates, are also high in potassium. Potassium is also present in meat, fish, apricots and other dietary products.
IDENTIFICATION TEST: Flame tests are used. Potassium shows a lilac colour
PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND USES : Potassium is most commonly used for treating and preventing low potassium levels, treating high blood pressure, and preventing stroke.
RUBIDIUM
GROUP :        IA
NUMBER SYMBOL: Rb
Other Names:  None
OCCURENCE
AND
DISTRIBUTION: It is Primordial. Rubidium is the twenty-third most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, roughly as abundant as zinc and rather more common than copper. It occurs naturally in the minerals leucite, pollucite, carnallite, and zinnwaldite, which contain as much as 1% rubidium oxide.
IDENTIFICATION TEST: Flame tests are used. Rubidium shows a red or reddish violet colour.
PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND USES: The principal use for rubidium is in research. Rubidium isotopes are used in medical procedures and pharmaceuticals. It is also used in atomic clocks, ceramic applications, and in global positioning systems (GPS).
CESIUM
GROUP :    IA
NUMBER SYMBOL : Cs
Another Name: Caesium
Occurrence and Distribution: Primordial. Cesium is a naturally occurring element found combined with other elements in rocks, soil, and dust in low amounts. Naturally occurring cesium is not radioactive and is referred to as stable cesium.
Identification Tests: Flame tests are used. Cesium emits blue/violet
PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND USES: People use both forms of cesium for medicine.  Non-radioactive cesium is also used to treat depression. Healthcare providers sometimes treat cancer patients with radioactive cesium (cesium-137). In industry, radioactive cesium is also used in instruments that measure thickness, moisture, and liquid flow.
FRANCIUM
GROUP :    IA
NUMBER SYMBOL : Fr
Another Name: None
Occurrence and Distribution: Transient. francium is the result of an alpha disintegration of actinium. It occurs naturally in uranium minerals, but the Earth’s crust probably contains less than 1 ounce of francium at any time. Francium can be made artificially if thorium is bombarded with protons
Identification Tests: Flame tests are used. Francium shows a silver Gray
PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND USES: Francium has been used in the field of research, chemistry and also in the atomic structure. It is used for diagnostics for curing cancers. It is also used in many spectroscopic experiments. Francium is a highly radioactive metal.
AMMONIUM
GROUP :    IA
NUMBER SYMBOL : NH4+
Another Name: None
Occurrence and Distribution: it is Primordial. Ammonia is found throughout the environment in the air, soil, and water, and in plants and animals including humans.
Identification Tests: Ammonium ions can be identified in a solution by adding dilute sodium hydroxide solution and gently heating. If ammonium ions are present, they will be converted to ammonia gas. Ammonia has a characteristic choking smell. It also turns damp red litmus paper or damp universal indicator paper blue.
PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND USES: Ammonia is used in the manufacture of nitric acid, soda ash, dyes, and for medications such as sulfa drugs, vitamins and cosmetics.
COPPER
Group: IIA
NUMBER SYMBOL : Cu
Another Name: Cuprum
Occurrence and Distribution: it is Primordial. The greatest source is in minerals such as chalcopyrite and bornite. Copper is obtained from these ores and minerals by smelting, leaching and electrolysis.
Identification Tests: Flame tests are used. Copper emits blue-green colour( often with white flashes)
PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND USES: Copper has been used as a medicine for thousands of years including the treatment of chest wounds and the purifying of drinking water. More recently, research has indicated that copper helps prevent inflammation in arthritis and similar diseases.
SILVER
Group: IIA
Number Symbol: Ag
Another Name: Argentum
Occurrence and Distribution: it is Primordial, found in the Earth’s crust in the pure, free elemental form (“native silver”), as an alloy with gold and other metals, and in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold, lead, and zinc refining.
Identification Tests: The Nitric Acid Test is used to check if silver is pure or plated. To do so, file a small part of the item in a discreet area where it cannot be seen. Apply a few drops of nitric acid. If the area turns into creamy white, the silver is pure or sterling.
PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND USES: The medical uses of silver include its use in wound dressings, creams, and as an antibiotic coating on medical devices. Wound dressings containing silver sulfadiazine or silver nanomaterials may be used on external infections.
GOLD
Group: IIA
Number Symbol: Au
Another Name: Aurum
Occurrence and Distribution: Gold often occurs in free elemental (native) form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the native element silver (as electrum) and also naturally alloyed with copper and palladium.
Identification Tests: The Nitric Acid Test is used. Genuine gold will stand up to your attempt to conduct a nitric acid test at home.
PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND USES: Gold is used as a drug to treat a small number of medical conditions. Injections of weak solutions of sodium aurothiomalate or aurothioglucose are sometimes used to treat rheumatoid arthritis.
BERRYLIUM
Group: IIB
Number Symbol: Be
Another Name: None
Occurrence and Distribution: It is Primordial. It is present in a variety of materials, such as rocks, coal and oil, soil, and volcanic dust. Two kinds of mineral rocks, bertrandite and beryl, are mined commercially for the recovery of beryllium
Identification Tests: Blood tests
PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND USES: used in high-technology consumer and commercial products, including aerospace components, transistors, nuclear reactors, and electronics industries like televisions, calculators, and personal computers. In medicine, beryllium is used in instruments, X-ray machines, and dental bridges.
MAGNESIUM
Group: IIB
Number Symbol: Mg
Another Name: None
Occurrence and Distribution: It is Primordial, Magnesium is found in a variety of foods, but the best sources tend to be green leafy vegetables, raw cacao, nuts and seeds
Identification Tests: Flame test can be used.  It is a shiny gray solid
PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND USES: They are used to treat magnesium deficiency, low blood magnesium, eclampsia, and several other conditions.  magnesium is commonly included in dietary mineral preparations, including many multivitamin preparations.
CALCIUM
Group: IIB
Number Symbol: Ca
Another Name: Acétate de Calcium, Aspartate de Calcium, Bone Meal
Occurrence and Distribution: it is Primordial. It is the fifth most abundant element in Earth’s crust and the third most abundant metal, after iron and aluminium. The most common calcium compound on Earth is calcium carbonate, found in limestone and the fossilised remnants of early sea life; gypsum, anhydrite, fluorite, and apatite are also sources of calcium.
Identification Tests: Flame tests are used. Calcium shows orange-red colour.
PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND USES: Used in the production of Calcium Carbonate. Calcium carbonate (CaC03) is a common additive in pharmaceutical industry. Calcium is needed by the body for healthy bones, muscles, nervous system, and heart. Calcium carbonate also is used as an antacid to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. It is available with or without a prescription.
STRONTIUM
Group: IIB
Number Symbol:Sr
Another Name:Chlorure de Strontium, Chlorure de Strontium-89
Occurrence and Distribution: it is Primordial. Strontium is a silvery metal found naturally as a non-radioactive element. About 99% of the strontium in the human body is concentrated in the bones.
Identification Tests: Flame tests are used. Strontium shows a red colour
PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND USES: Several different forms of strontium are used as medicine. Scientists are testing strontium ranelate to see if it can be taken by mouth to treat thinning bones (osteoporosis) and arthritis. Radioactive strontium-89 is given intravenously (by IV) for prostate cancer and advanced bone cancer.
Barium
Group: IIB
Number Symbol:Ba
Another Name: None
Occurrence and Distribution: Barium is never found in nature as a free element. Its hydroxide, known in pre-modern times as baryta, does not occur as a mineral, but can be prepared by heating barium carbonate.
Identification Tests: Flame tests can be used. Barium salts produce a green flame in the flame test. It’s usually described as a yellow-green, apple-green, or lime-green color.  Sometimes barium produces a yellow flame without noticeable green.
PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND USES: used in the production of Barium sulfate, which is used to help diagnose certain disorders of the esophagus, stomach, or intestines.
Radium
Group IIB
Number Symbol: Ra
Another Name: None
Identification Tests: Radium is silvery, lustrous, soft, intensely radioactive. It readily oxidizes on exposure to air, turning from almost pure white to black. Radium is luminescent, corrodes in water to form radium hydroxide.
Occurrence and Distribution: it is Transient . It is formed when uranium and thorium (two other natural radioactive substances) decay (break down) in the environment.
PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND USESRadium (usually in the form of radium chloride or radium bromide) was used in medicine to produce radon gas, which in turn was used as a cancer treatment.
Boron
Group IIIA
Number Symbol: Bo
Another Name: None
Identification Tests: Flame test is used. In the flame, you probably notice a bright green portion of the flame. The green color denotes the presence of the element boron (B) which you would expect in boric acid.
Occurrence and Distribution: it is Primordial. It occurs naturally in the environment due to the release into air, soil and water through weathering. It may also occur in groundwater in very small amounts. Humans add boron by manufacturing glass, combusting coal, melting copper and through the addition of agricultural fertilizers.

PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND USES: Boron is a mineral that is found in food and the environment. People take boron supplements as medicine. Boron is used for building strong bones, treating osteoarthritis, as an aid for building muscles and increasing testosterone levels, and for improving thinking skills and muscle coordination.

Aluminum
Group :IIIA
Number Symbol: Al
Another Name: Aluminium
Identification Tests: To identify aluminum ions in solution is by simple precipitation reactions.
Occurrence and Distribution: it is Primordial. Aluminium is the most abundant metal in the Earth’s crust (8.1%) but is rarely found uncombined in nature. It is usually found in minerals such as bauxite and cryolite
PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND USES: Aluminium is used in pharmaceutical packaging thanks to its special properties. This material creates a barrier to protect product from contaminations – light, oxygen and moisture – ensuring longer shelf life and higher security to patients.
Gallium
Group :IIIA
Number Symbol: Ga
Another Name: eka-aluminum
Occurrence and Distribution: Gallium does not occur as a free element in nature, but as gallium(III) compounds in trace amounts in zinc ores and in bauxite

Identification Tests: Can be identified through a Fluorescence Reaction with 8-Hydroxyquinoline

PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND USES: Gallium is used in some pharmaceuticals and radiopharmaceuticals. For example, the radioactive isotope Ga-67 is used as a nuclear medicine test to look for inflammation, infection or cancer in the body.

Indium

Group :IIIA
Number Symbol: In
Another Name: India
Occurrence and Distribution: it is Primordial. Indium is rarely found uncombined in nature and is typically found in zinc, iron, lead and copper ores. It is the 61st most common element in the Earth’s crust and around three times more abundant than silver or mercury, according to the U.S. Geological Survey.
Its abundance in the Earth’s crust is estimated to be about 0.1 part per million. That makes it slightly

Identification Tests: Flame tests are used. It emits silver Gray colour
PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND USES: Indium has no biological role, though its compounds are toxic when injected into the bloodstream. People take indium in supplements for increasing energy, preventing aging, boosting the immune system, increasing hormone production, and increasing absorption of nutrients.

 

Thallium

Group :IIIA

Number Symbol: Ti

Another Name: None

Occurrence and Distribution: it is Primordial. It occurs naturally in the earth’s crust.

Identification Tests: Flame tests are used. It emits pure green colour

PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND USES: Approximately 60–70% of thallium production is used in the electronics industry, and the remainder is used in the pharmaceutical industry and in glass manufacturing. … Soluble thallium salts (many of which are nearly tasteless) are toxic, and they were historically used in rat poisons and insecticides

 

Lanthanides

Group :IIIB

Number Symbol:Ln

Another Name: None
Occurrence and Distribution: They are Primordial except Promethium which is transient. The lanthanides occur naturally in many minerals but are most concentrated in monazite, a heavy dark sand, found in Brazil, India, Australia, South Africa, and the United States. The composition of monazite varies depending on its location, but generally contains about 50% of lanthanide compounds by weight.

Identification Test: he most common electrochemical method used for the determination of lanthanides is potentiometry.

PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND USES: Despite the initial disregarding of lanthanides due to suspected toxicity they have shown to have excellent properties for use as medicinal agents. The similarity of Ln3+ and Ca2+ has allowed lanthanides ions to be used as anti-osteoporotic agents as well as for increasing the permeability of cells to other drugs.

 

Actinides

Group :IIIB

Number Symbol: An

Another Name: None
Occurrence and Distribution: Transient and Synthetic except Thorium, Uranium and plutonium are
primordial. Thorium and uranium are the most abundant actinides in nature with the respective mass concentrations of 16 ppm and 4 ppm. Uranium mostly occurs in the Earth’s crust.

Identification Tests: Through analytical techniques.

PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS AND USES: An actinide, californium is used to make our smoke detectors while americium is found in our metal detectors and even used for cancer treatment. Going back to uranium, this actinide is used as a rich fuel source at nuclear power plants by converting it to plutonium